A comparative study of the use of X- and S-band polarimetric radars for rainfall parameter retrievals is presented. The main advantage of X-band polarimetric measurements is the availability of reliable specific differential phase shift estimates, KDP, for lighter rainfalls when phase measurements at the S band are too noisy to produce usable KDP. Theoretical modeling with experimental raindrop size distributions indicates that due to some non-Rayleigh resonant effects, KDP values at a 3.2-cm wavelength (X band) are on average a factor of 3.7 greater than at 11 cm (S band), which is a somewhat larger difference than simple frequency scaling predicts. The non-Rayleigh effects also cause X-band horizontal polarization reflectivity, Zeh, and differential reflectivity, ZDR, to be larger than those at the S band. The differences between X- and S-band reflectivities can exceed measurement uncertainties for Zeh starting approximately at Zeh > 40 dBZ, and for ZDR when the mass-weighted drop diameter, Dm, exceeds about 2 mm. Simultaneous X- and S-band radar measurements of rainfall showed that consistent KDP estimates exceeding about 0.1° km-1 began to be possible at reflectivities greater than ∼26-30 dBZ while at the S band such estimates can generally be made if Zeh > ∼35-39 dBZ. Experimental radar data taken in light-to-moderate stratiform rainfalls with rain rates R in an interval from 2.5 to 15 mm h-1 showed availability of the KDP-based estimates of R for most of the data points at the X band while at the S band such estimates were available only for R greater than about 8-10 mm h-1. After correcting X-band differential reflectivity measurements for differential attenuation, ZDR measurements at both radar frequency bands were in good agreement with each other for Dm < 2 mm, which approximately corresponds to ZDR ≈ 1.6 dB. The ZDR-based retrievals of characteristic raindrop sizes also agreed well with in situ disdrometer measurements.